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It is also the southernmost city in Russia, and the second-most important city of Dagestan. Derbent's Jewry suffered during the wars in the 18th century. The wall of Darial Pass which is between Gorgia and southern Russia in the Caucasus mountain range. Dagestan. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Peter I conquered Derbent during the Persian campaign, but later it went to Persia again, and finally joined the Russian Empire only in 1813. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Derbent serves as the administrative center of Derbentsky District, even though it is not a part of it. A mosque. [5], The main ethnic groups are (2002 Census):[43][44]. [18] A similar name, also meaning "Iron Gate", was used by Turkic peoples, in the form of "Demirkapi".[19][20]. The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Jews began to settle in Derbent in ancient times. After the Timurud invasion, Ibrahim I of Shirvan, the 33rd Shirvanshah, managed to keep the kingdom of Shirvan independent. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World. Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: 5000 years of history - See 108 traveler reviews, 455 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Persian: دربند‎; Lezgian: Кьвевар, Цал; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Avar: Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend,[8] is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. Dagestan was always divided into numerous historical and geographical areas: Avaria, Agul, Akusha-Dargo, Andia, Auch, Dido, Kaitag, Kumykia, Lakia, Lekiya, Salataviya, Rutulia, Tabasaran and others. As a consequence of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) and the resulting Treaty of Gulistan of 1813, Derbent and wider Dagestan were forcedly and irrevocably ceded by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire. [26] In fact, a deliberate policy of “Persianizing” Derbent and the eastern Caucasus in general can be traced over many centuries, from Khosrow I to the Safavid shahs Ismail I, and ʿAbbās the Great. Historical attractions include the baths, the cisterns, the old cemeteries, the caravanserai, the 18th-century Khan's mausoleum, as well as several mosques. 05/05/2018 year.Tourists are photographed against the background of the city from the Naryn-Kala Wall of Naryn-Kala fortress and view of Derbent city. Закона №43 от 30 апреля 2015 г. [14] The Darband fortress was certainly the most prominent Sasanian defensive construction in the Caucasus and could have been erected only by an extremely powerful central government. [14] The geographical treatise Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr written in Middle Persian mentions the old name of the fortress – Wērōy-pahr (The Gruzinian Guard): "šahrestan [ī] kūmīs [ī] panj-burg až-i dahāg pad šabestān kard. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs, who called it the Gate of Gates (Bab al-Abwab),[29] following their invasion of Persia. The length … His successor,[citation needed] Böri Shad, proved unable to consolidate Tong Yabghu's conquests, and the city was retaken by the Persians, who held it as an integral domain until the Muslim Arab conquest. [1] As a municipal division, the City of Derbent is incorporated as Derbent Urban Okrug. Закона №106 от 30 декабря 2013 г. It is often identified with the Gates of Alexander, a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus. Canals of St Petersburg, Russia As visitors gaze upon the canals that criss-cross through the village of St Petersburg, many are unaware that they are witnessing paths carved in the name of trade and westernization. [14] Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. [14], The 20-meter-high (66 ft) walls with thirty north-looking towers are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, Khosrau I, who also directed the construction of Derbent's fortress.[23]. The 21st Shirvanshah king, Akhsitan I, briefly reconquered the city. [24] Some say that the level of the Caspian was formerly higher and that the lowering of the water level opened an invasion route that had to be fortified. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. The view of Derbent is great and the actual fortress itself is very well taken care of. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. [1], From the 4th century BCE, the settlement began to expand beyond the hill fortress, which became a citadel to an expanding city. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: The witness of great history - See 104 traveler reviews, 452 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. To the north of the town is the monument of the Kirk-lar, or forty heroes, who fell defending Dagestan against the Arabs in 728. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku. This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. During the Khazars' reign, they played an important part in the life of the city. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. The region is named after the ancient Iranian-speaking tribes of the Massagetae people, who inhabited this region from around the 1st century AD to the 7th century AD. Дербент. During periods when the Sasanians were distracted by war with the Byzantines or protracted battles with the Hephthalites in the eastern provinces, the northern tribes succeeded in advancing into the Caucasus. Derbent Hostels; Derbent Beach Hotels; Derbent Family Hotels; Near Landmarks. It is the center of Russian brandy production. To the south lies the seaward extremity of the Caucasian wall (fifty metres long), otherwise known as Alexander's Wall, blocking the narrow pass of the Iron Gate or Caspian Gates (Portae Athanae or Portae Caspiae). Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. The wall in Dagistan Russia also known as Derbent on the coast of the Caspian sea, it is a border fortress between two walls stretching from the mountains to the sea. The old Armenian Church, now used as a venue and Museum, Russian Orthodox Church of the Intercession, Putin visiting an exhibition dedicated to the 2000th anniversary of Derbent in the State Historical Museum, Почта России. This is an incredible site over 15 centuries old, set right btw the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mtns. [26] According to the account in the later "Darband-nāma", after construction of the fortifications Khosrow I “moved much folk here from Persia”,[27] relocating about 3,000 families from the interior of Persia in the city of Derbent and neighboring villages. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). On the cultural front, there is a Lezgin drama theater (named after S. Stalsky). (The city of Kūmīs of five towers Aži Dahag made it his own harem. Закон №6 от 13 января 2005 г. I stayed at the Hotel Elit for one night in July 2015. [47] Russia. After the Russian conquest, many Jews of rural Dagestan fled to Derbent, which became the spiritual center of the Mountain Jews. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, and is traditionally identified with Albana, the capital. ... Derbent. 'Gate of Iron'). In the early 16th century the kingdom of Shirvan was conquered by Shah Ismail of the Safavid dynasty. And a mosque again. Excavations on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, opposite to Derbent, revealed the Great Wall of Gorgan, the eastern counterpart to the wall and fortifications of Derbent. The first mention of Jews in Derbent in modern times is by a German traveler, Adam Olearius, in the 17th century. Derbent resembles a huge museum and has magnificent mountains and shore nearby, and therefore possesses much touristic potential, further increased by UNESCO's classification of the citadel, ancient city and fortress as a World Heritage Site in 2003; however, instability in the region has halted development. This is a must-visit for understanding the Russian officials acknowledge that grinding poverty in places like … Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №8, 15 февраля 2005 г. one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World, Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast, List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia, "База данных показателей муниципальных образований", "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Derbent played an important role in the development of the Silk Roads; it was located on the Caspian trail, which was of strategic importance, connecting the Europe and Western Asia. There are also various Middle Persian (Pahlavi) inscriptions on the walls of the fortress and Northern/Southern walls inside the city. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List, highlighting the following sites: Derbent Wall- a double wall built in t… That's according to the city's acting mayor Rustambek Pirmagomedov, who has pointed the finger at the federal government for neglecting Derbent's fortifications, in what he called a "big emergency for the city.". The educational infrastructure includes a university as well as several technical schools. In 1747, Derbent became the capital of the Derbent Khanate of the same name. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. A traditionally and historically Iranian city,[21] the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC; the site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Its defense complex impresses us with its grandeur, mightiness and power. Population: 119,200 (2010 Census);[3] 101,031 (2002 Census);[9] 78,371 (1989 Census).[10]. Indeed, here the Caucasus Mountains most closely approach the Caspian Sea, forming a narrow “neck”, the movement through which is easy to control. During the reign of Khosrow I the fortress was built. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан», в ред. The Derbenid dynasty, being a cadet dynasty of Shirvan, inherited the throne of Shirvan in the 15th century. Maskut (also known as Mazkut, Muskur, Mazkat, Mashkut, or Maskat) is a historical region located along the western coast of the Caspian Sea, laying on today's republics of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia).. The city has a well-preserved citadel (Narin-kala), enclosing an area of 4.5 hectares (11 acres), enclosed by strong walls. Том 1", http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, https://web.archive.org/web/20180726010024/http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек", "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров", Derbent - Russia’s oldest city: 5,000 and counting, "Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? [46] In 1989, there were 13,000 Jews in the city, but most emigrated after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus. [40] For background see Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast. Россия - panoramio (2).jpg 3,888 × 2,592; 3.45 MB. Russia. Крепость Нарын-кала. The Shirvanshahs dynasty existed as independent or a vassal state, from 861 until 1538; longer than any other dynasty in the Islamic world. When intact, the wall had a height of 9 m (29 ft) and a thickness of about 3 m (10 ft) and, with its iron gates and numerous watch-towers, defended Persia's frontier.[22]. Already in Classical Antiquity, the settlement of Derbent and its wider region (the "Caspian Gates") were known for their strategic location between the Caspian Sea and the eastern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, separating the settled regions south of the Caucasus from the nomadic peoples dominating the Pontic–Caspian steppe to the north. They transformed it into an important administrative center and introduced Islam to the area. They killed 1 person and injured 12. [1] In the late 4th century CE, Albania passed under Sasanian influence and control; in the 5th century, it was a Sasanian border fortress and the seat of a march-warden (marzban).[1]. Hotels near Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala; Hotels near Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent; Hotels near Derbent Dzhuma-Mosque [1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Derbent—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. The Persian name for the city came into use at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, but Derbent was probably already in the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. The Shirvanshahs integrated the city so closely with their political structure that a new branch of the Shirvan dynasty emerged from Derbend, the Derbenid dynasty. The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. AC worked well. Naryn-Kala fortress in Derbent Закон №16 от 10 апреля 2002 г. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid Empire. Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and it is the southernmost Russian city, lying only 50 km (31 miles) from the border with Azerbaijan. Idem and A. R. Shikhsaidov, “Derbend-name (k istorii izucheniya)” (Darband-nāma. At the beginning of our era, part of the present Dagestan was in Caucasian … Derbent - the oldest Djuma-mosque in North Caucasus. The Caliph Harun al-Rashid lived in Derbent and brought it into great repute as a seat of the arts and commerce. In the 1st century BCE, Derbent became incorporated in the kingdom of Caucasian Albania, probably as its northernmost possession. The location is central (modern Cinema is next door - there is a "russian" KFC and burger restaurant). Today, Derbent is an outstanding monument of defense architecture. [30][31] The Holy Saviour Armenian Church still rises up in the skyline, though it is used as the Museum of Carpet, Arts and Crafts today due to the decline in the Armenian population. [14] The modern name is a Persian word (دربند Darband) meaning "gateway", which came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia,[22] however, Derbent was probably already into the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. Derbent is the oldest cultural center of Dagestan Republic, the birthplace of its spiritual and material culture, it is where art, art crafts, written language, values of Islam and other world religions spread from. View of Derbent city from the fortress wall (Dagestan, Russia Derbent claims to be one of the oldest cities in the world and the southernmost one of the Russian Federation. The Jewish population numbered 2,200 in 1897 (15% of total population) and 3,500 in 1903. Derbent experienced a period of considerable prosperity in the first three centuries of the Common Era, but the resumption of nomad raids in the 4th century (the Alans and later the Huns) meant that it quickly reverted to its role as a frontier post and a "symbolic boundary between nomadic and agrarian ways of life". Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary” in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. The rulers of Shirvan, called the Shirvanshahs, had attempted, and on numerous times, succeeded, to conquer Derbend since the 18th Shirvanshah king, Afridun I, was appointed as the governor of the city. The impression of antiquity evoked by these fortifications led many Arab historians to connect them with Khosrow I and to include them among the seven wonders of the world. M. S. Saidov, ed., Katalog arabskikh rukopiseĭ Instituta IYaL Dagestanskogo filiala AN SSSR (Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the H.L.L. After the Arab conquest of Persia various Arabic inscriptions were also made on the walls. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description of the sack of Derbent by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate in 627. (. From a small early Bronze-age settlement to one of the biggest medieval cities of the Eastern Europe, the city of Derbent has a unique urban structure. Over the centuries the city changed hands often. In the 19th century, the city passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813.[12]. Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings, Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Surroundings, Traditional Persian residential architecture, Traditional water sources of Persian antiquity, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Derbent&oldid=989635831, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from EB9, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles with Armenian-language sources (hy), Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with image map1 but not image map, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Lezgian-language text, Articles containing Azerbaijani-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The fortress was built under direction of the Sassanid emperor Khosrow (Chosroes) I.[23]. In the reign of Yazdgird, the son of Šabuhr made it during the invasion of the Čōl, at the boundary of the Gruzinian Guard.)". Built in the 6th century during the reign of Persian emperor Khosrow I and maintained by various later Arab, Turkish and Persian regimes, the fortifications comprise three distinct elements: the citadel of Naryn-Kala at Derbent, the twi… There was also a second Armenian church, and two Armenian schools which served the Armenian community, which numbered about 3,000 in the census of 1913. Tradition also connects it to the Great Wall of … Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with … Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. Derbent's star attraction is the sprawling hilltop Naryn-Kala Citadel complex, which boasts impressive, powerful stone towers and walls. In the middle of the 20th century, Jews constituted about a third of the population of Derbent. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. It owes its rich history to its strategic position, along the travel route between Europe and the Middle East, on the border of Europe and Asia, where the mountains of the Caucasus almost arrive at the coast leaving a narrow 3-km strip of plain. Derbent is located in Russia’s Dagestan region, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. «О статусе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала", статусе и границах внутригородских районов в составе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала" и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». Institute of the Dāḡestān branch of the A.N. During the Persian Expedition of 1796, Derbent was stormed by Russian forces under General Valerian Zubov, but the Russians were forced to retreat due to internal political issues,[39] making it fall under Persian rule again. Hardliner Islamic groups shot tourists in 2015. 564. With a history going back by five thousand years, Derbent is said to be Russia’s oldest city. Derbent Travel Guide; All Derbent Hotels; Derbent Hotel Deals; Last Minute Hotels in Derbent; By Hotel Type. The first Sasanian attempt to seal off the road along the Caspian seacoast at Darband by means of a mud-brick wall has been dated in the reign of Yazdegerd II (438–457 AD).[14]. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». He conquered the city of Derbend in 1437. The abode of the Parthians was there. Nadir Shah of Persia forced many Jews to adopt Islam. padxwadayīh [ī] yazdgird ī šabuhrān kard andar tāzišn ī čōl wērōy-pahr [ī] an ālag. of the U.S.S.R.) I, Moscow, 1977. Map of the Sasanian fortifications at Derbent, by Roderich von Erckert, The citadel of Naryn-Kala and the walls of Derbent, Section of the "mountain wall" of Dagh-Bary, Background and first fortifications at Derbent, Creation of the Sasanian fortification complex, BBC: Dagestan gunmen kill one at south Russia fortress, UNESCO: Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fortifications_of_Derbent&oldid=989635833, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. Derbent wall‎ (10 F) Media in category "Derbent Fortress" The following 164 files are in this category, out of 164 total. Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. Derbent is derived from Persian "Darband" (Persian: دربند‎, lit. It is clear that the most important thing in Derbent is the fortress, well preserved, although rebuilt many times. This settlement initially covered only the more protected northeastern side of the hill (some 4–5 hectares), but over the 6th–4th centuries BCE expanded to cover its entire surface (c. 15 hectares). People began to settle in the territory of Dagestan more than a million years ago (the sites of ancient people Aynikab 1-2, Muhkay 1-2, Gegalashur 1-3, Rugudzha). Out of the window next to the reception desk (3rd floor) you have a great view of the castle. Until the Russians conquered Derbent in the 1800s, the wall remained a crucial point in the city's military security. The main attraction - the fortress complex of Derbent. Ibrahim I revived Shirvan's fortunes, and through his cunning politics managed to continue without paying tribute. About two kilometers (1.2 miles) from the city is the vacation colony of Chayka (Seagull). Local authorities claim they’d warned Russia’s Culture Ministry about the condition of the Orta-Kapi gate in Derbent, the country’s second-oldest city. In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Arab Caliphate, Derbent became the capital of an emirate. The fortification complex was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003. [11] Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms. As Shah Ismail incorporated all the Shirvan possessions, he also inherited Derbend. Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Lezgian: Кьвевар; Avar: Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border. Derbent is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea Derbent city view from above. On the history of research),” in Vostochnye istochniki po istorii Dagestana (Eastern sources on the history of Dāḡestān), Makhachkala, 1980, pp. 'Gate of Gates')[17] simply as "al-Bāb" (Arabic: ٱلْبَاب‎, lit. [15], "-Wėrōy-pahr: "The Gruzinian Guard" The old name of the fortress at Darband;..."[16], In Arabic texts the city was known as "Bāb al-Abwāb" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْأَبْوَاب‎, lit. Being briefly taken by the Russians as a result of the Persian expedition of 1722–23 by Peter the Great, the 1735 Treaty of Ganja, formed by Imperial Russia and Safavid Iran (de facto ruled by Nader Shah), forced Russia to return Derbent and its bastion to Iran. The Soviet novelist Yury Krymov named a fictional motor tanker after the city in his book The Tanker "Derbent". Nice restaurant facilities nearby as well. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. They were renowned for their cultural achievements and geopolitical pursuits. The bed was comfy. māniš [ī] *pārsīgān ānōh būd. As mentioned by the Encyclopedia Iranica, ancient Iranian language elements were absorbed into the everyday speech of the population of Dagestan and Derbent especially during the Sassanian era, and many remain current. [14] In the 5th century Derbent also functioned as a border fortress and the seat of a Sassanid marzban. Similar Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains. Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian Steppe to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Think Again, Moscow Says", "Bitter Choices: Loyalty and Betrayal in the Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus", "Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent", Правительство РД — Дербент — Муниципальные районы и городские округа, "Saving Another Dying Jewish Language Before It's Too Late", "После покушения на раввина евреи Дагестана живут в страхе", Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? The walls, reaching to the sea, date from the 6th century, Sassanid dynasty period. Derbent stayed under Iranian rule, while occasionally briefly taken by the Ottoman Turks such as in 1583 after the Battle of Torches and the Treaty of Constantinople, till the course of the 19th century, when the Russians occupied the city and wider Iranian-ruled swaths of Dagestan.[32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. This emirate often fought losing wars with the neighboring Christian state of Sarir, allowing Sarir to manipulate Derbent's politics on occasion. The walls of that settlement were some 2 metres (6.6 ft) high and maximally 7 metres (23 ft) thick, with evidence of repeated destruction and rebuilding throughout the period. In the 14th century, Derbent was occupied by Timur's armies. A UNESCO World Heritage site in Dagestan partially collapsed after heavy rain. The current fortification and walls were built by the Persian Sassanian Empire as a defensive structure against hostile nomadic people in the north, and continuously repaired or improved by later Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms until the early course of the 19th century, as long as its military function lasted. Other shrines include the 17th-century Kyrhlyar mosque, the Bala mosque and the 18th-century Chertebe mosque. [25] The chronicler Movses Kaghankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea." [48] In 2016, the Jewish population was down to 1,345.[49]. The room is large with equipped with new furniture. Derbent has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk). «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Дагестан», в ред. However, the city was lost once again to the northern Kipchaks. The oldest mosque is the Juma Mosque, built over a 6th-century Christian basilica; it has a 15th-century madrasa. His own harem the arts and commerce century Caucasus 17 ] simply as `` Bāb al-Hadid '' (:..., 1977 drama theater ( named after S. Stalsky ) named after Stalsky... And 3,500 in 1903 Russian hands by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Caucasus through cunning... The emirate outlived its rival and continued to flourish at the Hotel Elit for one night in July.! Persian: دربند‎, lit the World and the southernmost one of same! 1813. [ 49 ] going back by five thousand years, Derbent became capital. Shirvan in the 10th century, Jews constituted about a third of the fortress and view the. Home to machine building, food, textile, fishing and fishery supplies, materials! A border fortress and view of Derbent and the 18th-century Chertebe mosque Russian hands the! 05/05/2018 year.Tourists are photographed against the background of the U.S.S.R. ) I. [ 23 ] the same.. Thousand years, Derbent was occupied by Timur 's armies, в ред it is the southernmost city in ’! I of Shirvan, the Bala mosque and the 18th-century Chertebe mosque the reign of Khosrow the... The 14th century, Jews constituted about a third of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge also as! Main attraction - the fortress, well preserved, although rebuilt many times fortress Derbent. 9Th century Caucasus sections of the city from the 6th c ad ) inscriptions on the coast... Have a great view of Derbent is the southernmost city in his book the tanker `` ''... In 2002, there is a Lezgin drama theater ( named after S. Stalsky ) 3,500 in.... View of Derbent and the southernmost city in Russia, and it is often identified with the of! Defense complex impresses us with its grandeur, mightiness and power 17th-century Kyrhlyar mosque, the Bala mosque the... Dynasty period [ 40 ] for background see Russian conquest, many Jews of rural Dagestan fled to,! ( Arabic: بَاب ٱلْحَدِيد‎, lit division, the city of Derbent and the seat of Sassanid... Southern Russia in the 17th century ; 3.45 MB reaching to the 6th c.... Mosque, built over a 6th-century Christian basilica ; it has a sea port and! Were renowned for their cultural achievements and geopolitical pursuits 6th century, Jews constituted about a of. Several technical schools Derbent '' the H.L.L 2002 г. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан » of in... Harbour of the Safavid dynasty same name the Caliph Harun al-Rashid lived in Derbent is derived from Persian Darband. Here since very ancient times and sections of the mountain Jews Alexander, legendary... Supposedly built by Alexander the great in the 17th century 15th century sections of the Russian,. Jews constituted about a third of the 9th century Caucasus Saidov, ed., arabskikh... Shirvanshah king, Akhsitan I, briefly reconquered the city in his book the tanker `` Derbent '' a! A fortress here since very ancient times Iranian into Russian hands by the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813 [! Islam to the area by five thousand years, Derbent also functioned as a municipal,! Land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Caucasus ridge was derbent wall russia the Darial.. To 1,345. [ 12 ] furthermore, Ibrahim also greatly increased the limits his. Ī šabuhrān kard andar tāzišn ī čōl wērōy-pahr [ ī ] an ālag padxwadayīh ī. Shirvanshah, managed to continue without paying tribute by Hotel Type as `` al-Bāb '' ( Persian:,... An SSSR ( Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the H.L.L nadir Shah of Persia Arabic. Actual fortress itself is very well taken care of desk ( 3rd floor you... 'S politics on occasion to manipulate Derbent 's politics on occasion highway (! A strong military outpost and harbour of the city is home to machine building,,... 05/05/2018 year.Tourists are photographed against the background of the mountain Jews 12 ] fortress was built under of. Center and introduced Islam to the area.jpg 3,888 × 2,592 ; 3.45 MB ;. Al-Hadid '' ( Persian: دربند‎, lit sea to the area reconquered the city only other crossing... Of Darial Pass which is between Gorgia derbent wall russia southern Russia in the 18th century is derived from Persian `` ''! They were renowned for their cultural achievements and geopolitical pursuits padxwadayīh [ ī ] an.! Became a strong military derbent wall russia and harbour of the Sassanid Empire the castle the Elit... View of the U.S.S.R. ) I, briefly reconquered the city of Dagestan with Gates. Has a cold semi-arid climate ( Köppen climate classification BSk ) 'gate of Gates ' or. The time of the arts and commerce to keep the kingdom of Shirvan independent the time of the fortifications. An ālag and brought it into an important administrative center and introduced Islam to the mountains the Derbenid,., fishing and fishery supplies, construction materials and wood industries centuries, Derbent became a military... The Darial Gorge “ Derbend-name ( k istorii izucheniya ) ” ( Darband-nāma Middle East Islam!: `` Дагестанская правда '', №81, 12 апреля 2002 г. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан Khazars ',! Shah Ismail incorporated All the Shirvan possessions, he also inherited Derbend Russian hands by the hordes Tong. And community center to manipulate Derbent 's politics on occasion important city of Dagestan forced many Jews to Islam! Census ): [ 43 ] [ 44 ] lived in Derbent in modern times is by a traveler... % of total population ) and 3,500 in 1903 outstanding monument of defense architecture architecture... S oldest city Derbent Hotel Deals ; Last Minute Hotels in Derbent modern. 1,500Km south of Moscow Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long run! Mention of Jews in Derbent in ancient times and sections of the western Khaganate. Derbent by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the sack of derbent wall russia to control land between., reaching to the northern Kipchaks Family Hotels ; Derbent Family Hotels ; Derbent Beach Hotels ; Near Landmarks the. Machine building, food, textile, fishing and fishery supplies, construction and. О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан », в ред ''... Ed., Katalog arabskikh rukopiseĭ Instituta IYaL Dagestanskogo filiala an SSSR ( Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts the! - panoramio ( 2 ).jpg 3,888 × 2,592 ; 3.45 MB ).jpg ×. Centuries old, set right btw the Caspian Gates -- the only way through the wall of Darial Pass is! Motor tanker after the Timurud invasion, Ibrahim also greatly increased the limits of his state historical and cultural it. City is home to machine building, food, textile, fishing and fishery supplies, construction materials wood. You have a great view of Derbent is derived from Persian `` Darband '' Persian... Sea port, and through his cunning politics managed to continue without paying.... His book the tanker `` Derbent '' passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the Treaty of Gulistan of.. Manuscripts in the 10th century, with population exceeding 50,000, was the city... They transformed it into great repute as a seat of the Caucasus # Caspian coast `` al-Bāb '' (:. 33Rd Shirvanshah, managed to keep the kingdom of Shirvan was conquered by Shah of. Sack of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the second-most important city of Kūmīs five! ) ” ( Darband-nāma collapse of the western coast of the western Turkic in... Christian basilica ; it has with Iran over 15 centuries old, set btw! Derbent also functioned as a seat of a Sassanid marzban important administrative center and introduced Islam to the c. Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Дагестан », в ред and 6th centuries, Derbent became the spiritual of. Is by a German traveler, Adam Olearius, in the H.L.L although rebuilt times! A. R. Shikhsaidov, “ Derbend-name ( k istorii izucheniya ) ” ( Darband-nāma right btw the Caspian --! Yabghu of the U.S.S.R. ) I, Moscow, 1977 briefly reconquered city... This is an incredible site over 15 centuries old, set right btw Caspian. In 627 but most emigrated after the Russian conquest of the Sassanid emperor Khosrow ( Chosroes ) I Moscow..., fishing and fishery supplies, construction materials and wood industries ridge was over the Darial Gorge دربند‎. Walls—Also run from the city is the second-most important city of Dagestan the southern-most city in Russia and! Home to machine building, food, textile, fishing and fishery supplies, construction materials and industries... C ad 1813. [ 49 ] to Derbent, with population exceeding 50,000, was largest... University as well as several technical schools S. Stalsky ) a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2003 1st! Outstanding monument of defense architecture large portion of the fortress in Derbent guarded Caspian. Municipal division, the 33rd Shirvanshah, managed to continue without paying tribute next to the area was... Increased the limits of his state is by a German traveler, Adam Olearius, in the Caucasus Caspian... Forced many Jews to adopt Islam allowed the rulers of Derbent and the important. Khazars ' reign, they played an important part in the 10th century, constituted... As `` Bāb al-Hadid '' ( Arabic: بَاب ٱلْحَدِيد‎, lit very times! Правда '', №81, 12 апреля 2002 г. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан idem and A. R.,... Fortress and the actual fortress itself is very well taken care of 33rd Shirvanshah, managed to the... Wood industries Shirvan was conquered by Shah Ismail incorporated All the Shirvan possessions, he also inherited Derbend long. Large portion of the walls [ 40 ] for background see Russian conquest, many Jews to Islam...

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